SWAN SEASON-PART 8 (THE FINAL PART)

Emily tries to get information for her article, but she can’t get many things from Tom Murphy who is drunken. Two weeks after the publishing of the article, Emily feels weird when she comes out to the Murphy’s Supermarket, the servants don’t serve her. TJ tells the reason why Emily is treated in that way. The reason is because she is the niece of Great Aunt Matilda. Emily’s relation with TJ are continuing, they often spend time together, and on the other chance Jacintha suddenly comes and sees that Emily has an affair with TJ who is Murphy. Continue reading

INTERPRETING YOUTUBE VIDEO INDONESIA-ENGLISH 6.30 DURATION

A.      Introduction

Globalization has brought many changes in human’s life. If decades ago people lived with limited movement, nowadays people are living under practical and sophisticated condition. The developmental of technology and human movements have given positive effects towards human movement and interaction. People before the twentieth century needed to master some important languages such as English, Spanish, France, Chinese, etc, however, people who are living after twentieth century do not need to master all the languages because of the andvances in invention.

English has been using globally since centuries ago. It is the most spoken language in the world. It is the native language of more than 350 million people worldwide. Since English has become the international language which has been used for communication, English has applied in many aspects in each country, including Indonesia. English has affected entire of many fields such as education, economy, politics, social-culture, religion, etc.

English is the only one language links the whole word together. By knowing English, it means that people can keep existing in this life. Nowadays, to find a job is hard. Each institution requires that an employee that wants to join in, must have the ability to use English. Not only the ability of mastering the spoken, but also the ability of mastering the written, read, and listened. So, that is why each country applies English into its curriculum in order to support its people and be able to keep surviving in this global era.

Human need to interact with the others, it is the nature of human, they have to socialize one another. It is not only for social reason, but also for economy, education, culture, and so on. For instance, in International Conference joined by the all countries whole over the world, each country will delegate its ambassador to represent its country. Countries that are non-native of English would use the services of an interpreter provided by the conference organizers.

Interpreting activity has become the main need when there are 2 people or more communicate together. Interpreting cannot be separated from translation, however, they are different. According to Wikipedia, translation defined as communication of the meaning of the source-language text by means of an equivalent of the target-language text. While interpreting defined as the facilitating other users of the other language either consecutively or simultaneously, orally. So, between translation and interpreting are basically have the same purpose with the same theory, it is to convey every semantic element and every intention and feeling that the message of the source language either text or speaker directing to target language recipient.

There are two types of interpreting activity, they are simultaneous interpretation and consecutive interpretation. In Simultaneous interpretation, the interpreter renders the message in the target language as fast as he/she can formulate from the source language, while the source language speaker continously speaks. While in consecutive interpretation, the interpreter speaks after the source language speaker pause or has finished speaking. When the speaker pause or stop his/her speaking, the interpreter then renders a portion of idea of the message or the whole message in the target language.

Newmark in Nababan (2008) states the method in translation process which can be brought into the interpretation methods :

  • Word-for-word translation: in which the Source Language (SL) word order is preserved and the words translated singly by their most common meanings, out of context.
  • Literal translation: in which the SL grammatical constructions are converted to their nearest Target Language (TL) equivalents, but the lexical words are again translated singly, out of context.
  • Faithful translation: it attempts to produce the precise contextual meaning of the original within the constraints of the TL grammatical structures.
  • Semantic translation: which differs from ‘faithful translation’ only in as far as it must take more account of the aesthetic value of the SL text.
  • Adaptation: which is the freest form of translation, and is used mainly for plays (comedies) and poetry; the themes, characters, plots are usually preserved, the SL culture is converted to the TL culture and the text is rewritten.
  • Free translation: it produces the TL text without the style, form, or content of the original.
  • Idiomatic translation: it reproduces the ‘message’ of the original but tends to distort nuances of meaning by preferring colloquialisms and idioms where these do not exist in the original.
  • Communicative translation: it attempts to render the exact contextual meaning of the original in such a way that both content and language are readily acceptable and comprehensible to the readership (1988b: 45-47).

Beside that, the interpreter can use the translation strategy in interpretation activity. According to Viney & Darbelnet (cited in Munday, 2001: 56 from http://http://www.ccsenet.org/journal/index.php/elt/article/download/2370/2234) who state translating procedure in two general strategies below :

1.    Direct Strategy :

  • Literal translation is a word-for-word transfer of the ST into TT by considering the appropriateness of the TT grammar and the ST idiom,
  • Borrowing is usually applied when the concept in ST is very much unknown and strange for TT readers,
  • Calque is a special borrowing that can ease translators for the literally direct translation of every word.

2.    Oblique Strategy :

  • Transposition procedure is expressing word with another class without changing the meaning of the message. In this procedure translator will have a wide-range of styles and options to express one concept.
  • Modulation procedure is how to express a concept in other form of message. Passive voice can be expressed in active as the nature of the TL. Whatever the emphasis of the ST sentence can be expressed in different form as long as the main message of the text is transferred into TT.
  • Equivalence is used to describe the same situation in different stylistic or structural means. This procedure is much helpful and functional in translating idioms and proverbs.
  • Adaptation involves changing the cultural reference when the situation in the source culture does not exist in the target culture. The closest concept to the target culture is employed to describe the term in source culture Munday (2001). The wand used by the witches of English may be translated into keris sakti or cincin keramat in Indonesian.

This paper aims to analyze a video of consecutive interpretation activity which is done by the two English Department students of Bina Nusantara University entitled “How to learn English”. The analysis will consider the interpretation based on the theories above.

B.       Discussion

The interpretation video shows that the interpretation is derived from Bahasa Indonesia into English which uses consecutive method in which the interpreter speaks after speaker speaks one idea or point. Generally, this interpretation video is quite good although there are some unappropriate words used here. The interpreter considers to use common words or bring the indonesian words into English with the easy way to be understood by other people. There are 5 parts of activity will be analyzed here :

  • Part 1

Tips on how to study English

Indonesian         : Tetapkan tujuan.

English               : First, set goals.

Indonesian         : Agar lebih mudah dalam memotivasi diri anda belajar,

English               : It opens much easier to motivate yourself to learn,

Indonesian         : anda harus mempunyai suatu tujuan yang hendak dicapai.

English               : You have something to aim for.

Indonesian         : Tujuan-tujuan tersebut dapat berjangka pendek atau pun panjang.

English               : That goals can be short term or long term.

In this part, the interpreter uses most common words for the first sentence “tetapkan tujuan”, then interpret this as “set goals”. It is use word-for-word, in which the interpreter uses the words in the target language which have the most common meanings. Furthermore, it has been expanded in the next sentence “agar lebih mudah dalam memotivasi diri anda belajar, anda harus mempunyai suatu tujuan yang hendak dicapai”, then “it opens meuch easier to motivate yourself to learn, you have something to aim for”. It is good, the interpreter considers to use contextual meaning, in which it doesn’t use word-for-word like in the previous sentence. While in the third sentence, it is good either, the interpreter uses literal in which she fits the source-language with the target-language.

  • Part 2

Indonesian         : Dua, Siap bekerja keras.

English               : Second, be prepare to work hard.

Indonesian         : Belajar suatu bahasa tidaklah mudah,

English               : To learning a language is generally not easy,

Indonesian         : banyak orang yang mempunyai kesibukan lain selain belajar bahasa inggris,

English                           : Most people have other things to do in their life, other part of learning English.

Indonesian         : Anda harus mengerti akan hal ini dan bersabar dalam proses belajar Anda.

English               : you need to realize this and be patient regard to your progress.

Indonesian         : Namun, tidak banyak yang akan anda capai bila anda tidak berusaha.

English                           : But, you won’t be achieved your goals much if you don’t put in the effort.

Indonesian         : Namun, kemajuan anda banyak bergantung pada diri anda sendiri.

English               : However, your progress depends a lot on you.

In this part, the interpreter has used better way to interpret what the speaker says. For instance, “be prepare to work hard” which is derived from “siap bekerja keras”, this sentence is very good to be understood by those who use this interpreter service. The interpreter do not always translate word from bahasa Indonesia like what is printed in the dictionary, but he/she fit the target-language with the source-language through contextual lexicon which has the nearest menaing. It is illustrated in the next sentences “you need to realize this and be patient regard to your progress”. This sentence is more understandable either for the native it the Indonesian who tend to learn the way to do interpreting. However, there is a mistake in grammar in the next sentence, it has to be “but, you won’t achieve your goal much, if you don’t put in the effort” instead of “but, you won’t be achieved your goal much, …”. Actually, it is not a big deal as long as it is understandable, however, an interpreter has to consider grammar as the other important thing beside meaning. Grammar roled to decorate the sentence which has been translated.

 

  • Part 3

Indonesian         : Tiga, luangkan waktu.

English               : Third, make a time.

Indonesian         : Banyak diantara kita mempunyai kehidupan yang sibuk.

English               : Many of us be a busy lives.

Indonesian         : Biasanya tidak mudah untuk memasukkan hal-hal baru kedalam rutinitas kita sehari-hari.

English               : and it is hard to fit new things into established routine.

Indonesian         : Belajar bahasa inggris membutuhkan disiplin

English               : Learning English can be requires discipline.

In the part three, the interpreter has done good interpretation, however, she has little mistake in grammar, especially in the third sentence. It has to be read “learning English requires discipline” instead of learning English can be requires discipline. The other thing that the interpreter has to bare in mind is not only how he/she can interpret quickly, but also how he/she can produce grammatical accuracy in the target language. Beside that, an interpreter has to have good lexical density, it means that he/she should have many vocabularies. It is expected that those who are interpreters are able to do their job as well as possible.

 

  • Part 4

Indonesian         : anda membutuhkan waktu untuk belajar dan benar-benar belajar pada saat itu.

English                           : you need to set a side time for your learning and be prepare to study during that time.

Indonesian         : tidak masalah bila anda mengalihkannya dengan alasan anda terlalu lelah sekali tetapi jangan menjadikan itu sebuah kebiasaan.

English                           : put things because you are too tired, it’s  ok. But, every now and then it shouldn’t become a habit.

Indonesian         : Jadikan bahasa inggris bagian yang tak terpisahkan dari rutinitas anda.

English               : make english as inseparable part of your schedule.

 

In this part, the interpreter has produce better translation. It is proved for the first and the second sentence. The interpreter make these sentences sound communicative, so the listener understand it easily. The indonesian form “tidak masalah bila anda mengalihkannya dengan alasan anda terlalu lelah sekali tetapi jangan menjadikan itu sebuah kebiasaan” then translate as “put things because you are too tired, it’s  ok. But, every now and then it shouldn’t become a habit” prove that it is made communicatively. It should be “it doesn’t matter, if…” or “it’s not a big deal, if…”. However, the interpreter uses more effective and efficient words, it is such a great way.

  • Part 5

Indonesian         : Empat, bertanya.

English               : Fourth, aks questions.

Indonesian         : Jangan takut untuk bertanya.

English               : Don’t be afraid to ask questions.

Indonesian         : Lima, menonton film berbahasa Inggris.

English               : Fifth, watch English movies.

Indonesian         : Ini cara terbaik belajar bahasa pergaulan dan melatih kemampuan  pendengaran.

English               : it’s a great way to become English and practice listening.

Indonesian         : anda tidak harus mengerti arti setiap kata yang dikatakan

English                   : you don’t need to understand the meaning of every word to understand what the speaker says.

From this part, the writer finds different way to interpret “bahasa pergaulan” as “…to become English”, but it is still understandable. From the first to third sentence, she uses word-for-word. It is because these sentences are in the simple form, and it is easy to translate it word for word. However, in the next sentences, it is need more advance technique/procedure, and the interpreter is a good one.

C.      Conclusion

Finally, the writer concludes that both interpreter and the speaker shared the same idea, although, the interpreter for some chances uses unpredictable lexicons that are far from writer expectation. However, both of the lexicons in the source-language and the target-language shared the similarity and they are easy to be understood. Furthermore, the interpreting process from the beginning until the end flows enjoyably, beacuse between the speaker and interpreter have the same perception and good memory. According to Nababan (2008) who states that interpretation activity requires very good ability in in information processing fast and accurately in very limited time. Perception, memory, intake power, and his/her reaction must be good. Furthermore, she/he must be able to identify literal meaning in mimics, hand gestures  and body languages of the speaker. It is what and interpreter should have.

D.      References

Nababan, M. Rudolf. 2008. Teori Menerjemah Bahasa Inggris. Yogyakarta : Pustaka Pelajar.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Interpreting, accessed on August, 2nd 2013

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tranlation, accessed on August, 2nd 2013

http://www.ccsenet.org/journal/index.php/elt/article/download/2370/2234, accessed on August, 2nd 2013

 

This paper was submitted as one of requirements to accomplish Interpreting lecture on Mr. Baharuddin’s class.

CONVERSATIONAL IMPLICATURES IN ORGANIZATION MEETING

CHAPTER I

INTRODUCTION

Communication is the most important process in human interaction that requires at least two agents in order to be succesfull. Commonly, human doesn’t directly say what he/she intended to say. Sometimes, a person doesn’t not literally express what s/he wants to say nor implies it during the conversation.

Organization is a group of people that have agreement to have the same goal. According to Wikipedia (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Organization), defined that an organization is a social entity that has a collective goal and is linked to an external environment. Since the people involve in this social entity have the same mind concept, they will have a kind of group meeting either it is organized or unorganized by daily, weekly, monthly even yearly.

Communication cannot be separated from organization, because the way a member of organization delivers his/her own idea or point of view is through communication. Type of communication usually use in organization can be vary, it depends on the purpose of the meeting, it can be formal or casual. Whether it contains truly bright idea or just contains a joke.

In order to produce a better outcome of communication, people need a set of rules which will limit the idea of the utterances so that it will not be misinterpreted or misunderstood by the addressee. When people interact, they must have minimal assumptions (implicatures) about one another. The first is conventional implicature in which the sender and receiver do not require any particular context in order to understand (or infer) the message. The second one is conversational implicature in which it is implied varies according to the context of an utterance.

According to Grice (1975) who states the term implicature has purpose to account for what a speaker can imply, suggest, or mean, as distinct from what the speaker literally says. Conversational implicatures refer to the implications which can be concluded from the form of an utterance, on the basis of certain cooperative principles which managed the efficiency and normal acceptability of conversations, as when the sentence This window is dirty is taken to mean ‘you should clean it up’; they contrast with explicatures, which are the propositions that are explictly communicated (the fact that the window is dirty, in this example).

On the other words, this writing aims to examine the characteristic of conversational implicature used in organization meeting. The primary concern of this paper is limited to the communication in an organization named STATEMENT (Student Association of English Department), Teacher Training and Education Faculty, The University of Mataram on July, 5th 2013 in Room C2.

CHAPTER II
FRAME OF THOUGHT

A.      Conversational Implicature

According to Grice (1975) who states the term implicature has purpose to account for what a speaker can imply, suggest, or mean, as distinct from what the speaker literally says. Conversational implicatures refer to the implications which can be concluded from the form of an utterance, on the basis of certain cooperative principles which managed the efficiency and normal acceptability of conversations, as when the sentence This window is dirty is taken to mean ‘you should clean it up’; they contrast with explicatures, which are the propositions that are explictly communicated (the fact that the window is dirty, in this example).

As the writer presents in the beginning of this paper, there are two kind of implicature (minimum assumption) when people doing conversation. The first one is the most implicature in which cause miscommunication  because when one person speak and doesn’t directly says direct message (implied meaning), the other one may have different assumption about the message conveyed. The last is the case commonly happened and related to conversational implicatures.

According to Azhar (http:/www.slideshare.net/ wardahazhar/ implicatures) there are four types of conversational implicatures : Context dependence; Defeasibility/cancel ability; Non-detachability, and Calculability.

Context dependence means that an expression with a single meaning (i-e, expressing the same proposition) can give rise to different conversational implicatures in different contexts. Next, defeasibility means that conversational implicatures can be cancelled by additional material without contradiction or anomaly (irregularity). Then, non-detachibility means that the same propositional content in the same context will always give rise to the same conversational implicature, in whatever form it is expressed (implicature is tied to the meaning, not the form). Last, calculability means that conversational implicature must be calculable, using state able general principles on the basis of conventional meaning together with contextual information.

People may have misinterpretation when two people are doing conversation, especially for the addressee. For instance, A is a speaker and B is an addressee. One day, A is going to go to the Public Library in hurry. Then B suddenly comes and approach A. Then B asks, “Where are you going in such a hurry?”. In turn, A replies, “The deadline of the submission of final assignment is at 10.00 A.M, two hours left”. What actually happen in this conversation shows that A answers B with no relevance, it means that there is a violance of Cooperative Principles in which closely related to Conversational Implicatures.

According to Grice (1975) who states that conversational implicatures depend on features of the conversational situation or context and not just on the conventional meanings of the words used. The notion of a conversational implicature is thus a pragmatic notion. It is defined in terms of the Gricean Maxim Cooperative Principle.

B.       Maxim Cooperative Principles

According to Grice (1975:45) who formulates the Cooperative Principle in which it sounds “make your conversational contribution such as is required, at the stage at which it occurs, by the accepted purpose or direction of the talk exchange in which you are enganged”. Grice’s logic of conversation is based on the idea that contributors to a conversation are rational agents; that is, that they obey a general principle of rationality known as the cooperative principle (CP). In order to fulfil the cooperative principle, the speaker must follow nine maxims of conversation, grouped in four Kantian categories: Quantity, Quality, Relation and Manner. Grice’s definitions of these maxims are as follows (Grice 1975: 45-6):

a.      Maxims of Quantity:

1. Make you contribution as informative as is required.

2. Do not make your contribution more information than is required.

b.      Maxims of Quality: Try to make your contribution one that is true.

1. Do not say what you believe to be false.

2. Do not say that for which you lack adequate evidence.

c.       Maxim of Relation: Be relevant.

d.      Maxims of Manner: Be perspicuous.

1. Avoid obscurity of expression.

2. Avoid ambiguity.

3. Be brief.

4. Be orderly.

C.      Communication in Organization

Organizational communication is defined as the process by which individuals stimulate meaning in the minds of other individuals by means of verbal or nonverbal messages in the context of a formal organization (Levinson, 2000). Furthermore, Levinson (2000) proposes that thera are four components in communication as follows :

  1. The Source : the person who originates a message.
  2. The Message : any verbal or nonverbal stimulus that elicits meaning in the receiver.
  3. The Channel : by which a message is carried from one person to another.
  4. The Receiver : the person who acquires the source’s message.

Communication flows in two directions in the organization: vertically and horizontally. Vertical communication is concerned with communication between employees at different hierarchical levels in the organization. It focuses on downward and upward communication between managers and employees. Horizontal communication is concerned with communication between employees at the same level in the organization. It focuses on communication between peers, people ,at equal or very nearly equal levels in the organization. It is communication that goes across the organization (Cohen, 1971).

CHAPTER III
DATA PRESENTATION AND DATA ANALYSIS

A.      Data Presentation

By providing the data, the writer aims to identify and examine the four types of Conversational Implicatures in Organization Meeting : STATEMENT on July, 6th 2013. The conversation took place at Faculty of Teacher Training and Education (FKIP) Room C2, starting from 3 P.M.-4 P.M.

The data was got through recording and transcribing into the textual form. The writer  propose this method aiming to discover and describe the type of conversational implicatures used in this organization meeting.

The writer uses observed-participant technique in collecting the data, it means that the writer observed and at once roled as passive participant. Passive participant means that the writer doesn’t roled actively in the meeting.

B.       Data Analysis and Discussion

The following schenes are transcribing data which the writer recorded during the meeting. The writer modifies the name of group members by using initial name. The participants are JR, SH, FA, AS, BI, RS, NI, NH, RR, MM and RF.

1.      Context dependence

Scene 1

FA : Baiklah kawan-kawan, langsung saja, pada meeting kita sore ini, kita akan membahas tentang persiapan acara kita, yakni FBS (Fasting Break STATEMENT). Langsung saja ya, bagaimana menurut teman-teman?

(Ok guys, let’s begin. In this meeting, we will discuss about our event, it is FBS (Fasting Break STATEMENT), Let’s create a new committee directly. Do you agree?)

JR   : (Mengacungkan tangan), permisi saya mau masuk.

((Raising hand), can i get in?)

FA : Ya, silakan.

(Yes, please)

JR : Terima kasih, maaf sebelumnya, saya ingin memberikan gambaran sedikit, sebelum kita membentuk kepanitiaan, saya kira alangkah lebih baik jika ada serah terima jabatan terlebih dahulu dari ketua yang lama ke yang baru. Walaupun kita belum melaksanakan Laporan Akhir Pertanggungjawaban (LPJ), tapi ini sebagai simbolis bahwa kepengurusan lama sudah benar-benar berakhir. Terima Kasih.

(Thank you, let me give a little bit of my view to you all. It will be better if there is the handover ceremony of the position from the Previous President to the New Presiden before we creating the Committee. Eventhough we haven’t conducted LPJ yet, it will become a symbolic ceremony that the Previous Organization Period is truly over. Thank you).

This conversation shows that JR doesn’t agree with the offering from FA. JR expression’s with a single meaning by giving short view  can give rise to different conversational implicature in different contexts. So, the type is context dependence.

2.      Non-detachability

Scene 1+Scene 2

FA : Baiklah kawan-kawan, langsung saja, pada meeting kita sore ini, kita akan membahas tentang persiapan acara kita, yakni FBS (Fasting Break STATEMENT). Langsung saja ya, bagaimana menurut teman-teman?

(Ok guys, let’s begin. In this meeting, we will discuss about our event, it is FBS (Fasting Break STATEMENT), Let’s create a new committee directly. Do you agree?)

JR   : (Mengacungkan tangan), permisi saya mau masuk.

((Raising hand), can i get in?)

FA : Ya, silakan.

(Yes, please)

JR : Terima kasih, maaf sebelumnya, saya ingin memberikan gambaran sedikit, sebelum kita membentuk kepanitiaan, saya kira alangkah lebih baik jika ada serah terima jabatan terlebih dahulu dari ketua yang lama ke yang baru. Walaupun kita belum melaksanakan Laporan Akhir Pertanggungjawaban (LPJ), tapi ini sebagai simbolis bahwa kepengurusan lama sudah benar-benar berakhir. Terima kasih.

(Thank you, let me give a little bit of my view to you all. It will be better if there is the handover ceremony of the position from the Previous President to the New Presiden before we creating the Committee. Eventhough we haven’t conducted LPJ yet, it will become a symbolic ceremony that the Previous Organization Period is truly over. Thank you).

SH    : Biar kita tidak lama-lama menunggu, sebaiknya sekarang Presiden lama memberikan the last speech, so that the New STATEMENT 2013 can contribute soon, terus ijab kabul deh.

(To make time use efficiently, it will be better soon if the Previous President give his last speech, so the New STATEMENT 2013 can contribute soon, after that he will handover the position to the new one.)

As JR and SH opinions, it is clearly that both of them have the same point of view. Although their speech form is different, but they lead into one conclusion, it is they do not agree with FA offering. So, it is the case of non-detachability.

Scene 3

FA    : Oke, sekarang kita beralih membahas masalah Staffing. Saya kira kita tidak bisa membentuk kepengurusan hari ini karena minimnya anggota yang hadir. Kita akan mencari satu waktu minggu depan, mungkin. Bagaimana menurut teman-teman?

(Oke, let’s move into Staffing. I think we cannot create the structure of organization today because of minimal members. We will look for a certain time next week. How do you think?)

JR     : Permisi, saya masuk. Kalau menurut saya, sebaiknya dibentuk saja sekarang, dengan anggota yang minim, sebaiknya dibentuk kepengurusan inti saja dulu, karena mengingat waktu yang sudah mendekati bulan puasa, akan sulit untuk mengumpulkan teman-teman pada waktu puasa. Mengenai staf-staf yang akan mengisi di masing-masing departemen, itu kan wewenang presiden.

(Excuse me, I think it will be better if we create the organizational structure today. Looking to the fact that the members who come today is minimal, it is better to determine the core members. Due to the Fasting Month that will come in next few days, it will be difficult to make them come into a meeting. For the staffs that will get on the position, it is the Presdident’s authority.)

SH    : Masuk ya, benar kata Pak Presiden. Saya setuju lebih baik jika kita memilih satu waktu, mengingat anggota yang hadir cuma sedikit.

(I will get in first, I agree with President, it will be better if we choose a certain time, looking to the fact that the members here is minimal.)

JR     : Masuk ya, sekarang saja, kan tinggal pilih nama saja.

(I think it is better now if we choose the name.)

SH    : Tergantung kesepakatan forum saja si kalau begitu.

(It depends on the agreement of the forum I think.)

RS     : Masuk ya, kalo menurut saya di mapping saja dulu yang pengurus inti dan koordinator masing-masing departemen, nanti staf-staf yang lain menyusul, sambil pak Presiden menyusun dan menghubungi staf-staf tersebut apakah mereka setuju untuk ditempatkan di departemen tertentu.

(I will get in first, I think it is better to map the core members and coordinator for each department, the other staffs will be choosen later, while the President forming and calling those staffs whether they agree or not.)

BI     : Masuk ya, setahu saya, kalo di organisasi lain, yang berwenang me-mapping kepengurusan itu Presiden langsung sendiri, jadi biar waktunya tidak terbuang, tunggu apa lagi?

(According to what I have experienced, in other organization, the one who have authority to map the organization structure is the President itself. So, what are we waiting for?)

FA    : Oke, mari kita tulis.

(Ok, let’s write it.)

This conversation shows the type of conversational implicature, it is non-detachability, because JR, RS, and BI have the same opinions which lead into the same meaning, eventhough those have the different syntactic structures.

CHAPTER IV
CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION

A.      Conclusion

From the data analysis and discussion above, it is concludes that the type of conversational implicatures used in the organization meeting are context-dependence and non-detachability. The writer assumes that the organization members have been experiencing and being together for the one year so that they have the similar and parallel habits in meeting. Furthermore, they use the similar types on the previous meetings.

The data shows that the participants have the different way to deliver his/her opinion although they have the similar idea or opinion. It is a kind of the emphasis on certain idea that they think that it is the most reasonable and applicable idea.

B.       Recommendation

The data analysis shows that the types of conversational implicatures are two. It is interesting for the next researcher to find the other organization type in order to discover the two other types which haven’t been found here.

REFERENCES

Grice, H. Paul. 1975. Logic and Conversation. In Peter Cole and Jerry L. Morgan, editors, Syntax and Semantics III: Speech Acts. Academic Press, New York, NY, pg. 41-58.

Cohen, L. Jonathan 1971 Some remarks on Grice’s view about the logical particles ofnatural language. In: Yoshua Bar-Hillel (ed.), Pragmatics of Natural Language, 50-68. Dordrecht: Reidel.

McCroskey, J. C., & Richmond, V. P. (1997), Communication in educational organizations. Acton, MA: Tapestry Press.

Levinson, S. (2000) Presumptive Meanings: The theory of generalized conversational implicature. MIT.

Websites :

Azhar, Wardah. http://www.slideshare.net/wardahazhar/implicatures, accessed on July, 7th 2013

http://anneberger.wordpress.com/2010/09/30/miscommunication/, accessed on 10th of April, 2013.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Organization, accessed on July, 7th 2013.

This paper was submitted to accomplish my lecture on Discourse Analysis on Prof. Mahyuni’s class.

Jangan Menyepelehkan

Jangan pernah menyepelekan karena bisa saja itu sangat berarti untuk orang lain

Jangan pernah menyepelekan karena bisa saja itu buah dari kerja keras orang lain

Jangan pernah menyepelekan karena bisa saja suatu hari kau akan menariknya kembali

Jangan pernah menyepelekan karena bisa saja orang lain sangat membutuhkannya

Lebih dari itu, ambillah hikmah dibalik setiap kejadian, pikirkanlah baik-baik setiap keputusan yang menyangkut kepentingan orang lain

Sekecil apapun, hargailah itu

Mungkin segores pena di atas lembaran secarik kertas kumal begitu berharga bagi dirinya

I learn many things from this experience, as a future teacher, I will pay attention on every single thing related to pen and paper.

Big thanks for those who have given me time to learn. See you on the top ^_^

Done at 7.44 A.M on February 27th, 2014 (Mataram)

BASIC CONSTRUCTION, APPLICATIVENESS, UNACCUSATIVITY, CAUSATIVIZATION, AND PASSIVIZATION

FINAL ASSIGNMENT OF SYNTAX

  1. What are the main differences between basic construction and applicativeness?
  2. What are the similarities between unaccusativity and causativization?
  3. What are the major differences between a canonical passive and invertived passive?

Answer :

  1. Basic constructions deal with one-place verb (intransitive construction), two-place verb (transitive construction), and three-place verb (ditransitive construction). Hanafi in Hanafi (2003) states that in one-place verb, the clause has one or two arguments. In the two-place verb the clause bears two arguments, while in three-place verb, the clause has three arguments.

Applicativeness is a process of valency mechanism to add an argument of a verb (Spencer in Hanafi, 2003) in which the verb is marked with affixes (Trask in Hanafi, 2010).

The major differences between basic construction and applicativeness are located in the derivation process, it happens without deleting any kind of words. It is different from applicativeness in which it happens by adding arguments of affixes.

Let’s take a look on the following explanation :

  1. Basic constructions

1)   One-place verb

the verb bears one or two arguments. Consider the following example :

-         Saya sedang makan.

I am eating

-         Sedang makan saya*

-         Makan saya sedang#

-         Sedang saya makan#

-         Saya makan sedang#

-         Makan sedang saya#

The sentence on the example above shows that it has one argument (*sentence)  because the it has just one alternation. While in the (# sentences) all of them are in incorrect form, because they are meaningless or they are hardly to be understood.

2)   Two-place verb

  1. John hit the duck
  2. The duck John hit*
  3. John the duck hit#
  4. Hit the duck John#
  5. Hit John the duck#

The sentences showed above prove that transitive constructions bear two argument. The first is preverbal functioning as Subject and preverbal functioning as Object (a). The postverbal argument NP can be promoted to the initial position of the clause like in (b). However, it can’t be inserted between the preverbal argument and the verb (c). Then, the preverbal argument neither can be moved to the end of the clause (d), nor inserted between the verb and postverbal argument NP (e).

Postverbal argument NP (a) functions as an Object. It can be proved by a passive test that the duck can take the position as a grammatical Subject in (f) through passivization :

  1. The duck was hit by John*

3)   Three-place verb

Three-place verb or ditransitive verb bears three arguments. Those are Subject, Direct Object and Indirect Object. Here are the series of ditransitive verb : give, deliver, send, borrow, supply, and lend (Dixon in Hanafi, 2003). Look on the following sentences :

a)    Roy gave a bunch of flower to Mia

b)   A bunch of flower Roy gave to Mia*

c)    To Mia, Roy gave a bunch of flower*

d)   Roy gave a Mia a bunch of flower*

e)    Gave a bunch of flower to Mia Roy#

f)     Gave Roy a bunch of flower to Mia#

g)    Gave a bunch of flower to Mia#

h)    Roy gave to Mia a bunch of flower#

Based on the example of sentences above, Roy is a NP and it has role as Subject, also it is preverbal. The postverbal positions are a bunch of flower which is an Direct Object, and Mia as Indirect Object. Sentences a, b, c, and d are the corrected combination, but the sentences e, f, g, and h are the incorrected one. Subject cannot be placed at the final position (e). Subject cannot be inserted between its verb and Direct Object (f), and Subject cannot be inserted between Direct Object and Indirect Object (g), also Direct Object cannot take final position in the clause if the preposition (to) of Indirect Object is not taken out (h).

In the clause with three argument NPs, Subject is always in the beginning of the clasue, then followed by the verb, verb is followed by Direct Object (Direct Object can be placed in the beginning of the clause when it is functioning as the topic). The last is Indirect Object follows Direct Object and may take an initial position in the clause if it is functioning as a topic of the clause.

  1. Applicativeness

In applicativeness, it is different from basic constructions in which derication occurs without dropping any kind of words, while in applicativeness, an argument added by inserting affixes. The writer will take the example from Bahasa Indonesia, because various kind of applicative construction can be created from it. While in English, the constructions are limited. There are two kind of revalution which is related to applicativeness, those are promotion and demotion. The writer will examine about normal promotion and abnormal promotion related to applicativeness.

1)        Normal Promotion

According to Hanafi (2003), who states that in normal promotion we examine oblique relations such as : locative (at, in), instrumental (by), benefactive (for), recipient (to), and destination (to). These relations can be directly promoted to Object positions in the clauses by consider to the following examples by using locative oblique :

  1. Desi mencoret di baju-nya

3SG scratchs   on cloth-3SG.POSS

“Desi scratchs on her cloth”

  1. Desi mencoret-i                 baju-nya

3SG ACT.scratchs-APPL    cloth-3SG.POSS

Example (a) illustrates that the NP preceeding the verb ‘mencoret’ which is a Subject and the NP preceeded by di prepostion is a locative oblique.  The promotion of locative oblique to Object in (b) is marked by suffix –i on the verb and the deletion of preposition ‘di’.

2)        Abnormal Promotion

In abnormal promotion, Subject must firstly go to Object in order to show the promotion of a source oblique. Look at the following examples :

  1. Rina meminjam      uang   ke Roni

3SG ACT.borrow  money   to Roni

Rina borrows some money to Roni

  1. Roni meminjam-i                   Rina uang

Roni ACT.borrow.APPL         Rina money

Roni lends Rina some money

The example (b) shows that the promotion of oblique to Subject in the two-place verb construction, the verb makes suffix –i appearing to mark the APPL. Then ke preposition is omitted.

  1. Unaccusative denotes to an intransitive verb whose surface Subject is an underlying (direct) Object (Trask in Hanafi, 2003). While Causativization defined as one participant causing another to perform an action (Pickett in Hanafi, 2003).

The similarities between them are they have causative markers in the clause and unaccusativity is the part of causativiazation. For the futher explanation, look at the following examples :

  1. Bebek             mandi

S                     Vi

  1. Adik memandi-kan                  bebek

A      ACT.Vt-.CAUS                      P

  1. Adik tertawa karena  memandi-kan bebek

A      PASS.    CAUS        ACT.Vt               P(Patient)

In the example above, (a) which is used Vi changes to Vt because the Subject in (a) corresponds with Patient (b), then the verb become unaccusative. –kan in (b) marks that it is causative. While in (c), there are two components here, the first is before Conjunction (karena) and after Conjuction (karena). Adik tertawa CAUSE memandikan bebek. It is the term of cause and effect. So, the writer conclude that Unaccusative is the part of Causativization in terms of its existence in the causativization construction (c).

  1. According to Hanafi (2003) who states that in canonical passive, it is marked by the presence of prefixes on the verbs and the agentive adjunct can optimally omitted. While inverted passive defined identical with the active form in the word order, but the verb is unmarked passive or without a prefix and there is no agentive adjunct after the basic verb. It is clear the differences about canonical passive and inverted passive, or the writer can simplify it into two statements :
    1. Canonical passive marked by the presence of prefix on the verbs, while inverted passive has no prefixes.
    2. Canonical passive marked by the optimal omission of the agentive adjunct, while inverted passive has no agentive adjunct.

For the clear explanation, look at the following examples used sentences in Bahasa Indonesia :

1)   Canonical Passive

  1. Raka di-tendang oleh Amir

3SG   PASS.kick      by    Amir

‘Raka is kicked       by    Amir’

  1. Raka di-tendang Amir

3SG PASS.kick     Amir

‘Raka is kicked (by Amir)’

  1. Raka di-tendang-nya

3SG. PASS.kick   –postclitic

‘Raka is kicked (by someone)’

The construction of canonical passive sentences in the (a) and (b) show that passive is marked by di-. While in the agentive adjunct it is marked by the postclitic –nya in which it derived oleh which can be existing or not in sentence.

2)   Inverted Passive

Inverted passive can be showed by “the deletion of affix me-“ in Bahasa Indonesia sentence construction. The sentence (b) represents inverted passive. It is showed in the following examples :

  1. Amir me-nendang Raka

3SG     ACT.kick        Raka

  1. Amir tendang Raka

3SG.  V.kick      Raka

REFERENCES :

Hanafi, Nurachman. 2003. Syntax. Mataram : Mataram University Press.

 

This assignment was proposed to fulfill the requirement of Syntax Lecture-English Dept-FKIP-Mataram University

PSIKOLINGUISTIK

  1. Psikolinguistik

Bahasa adalah salah satu elemen penting dalam kehidupan manusia, terutama dalam kaitannya dengan interaksi. Bahasa menjadi media dalam penyampaian dan penyaluran informasi terutama semenjak teknologi telah memasuki kehidupan manusia. Interaksi tidak hanya terjadi antar dua orang atau sekelompok orang saja yang berada di satu tempat, melainkan antar orang yang ada di berbagai belahan dunia dalam waktu yang bersamaan, yakni melalui video call, telepon, dan chatting (obrolan online).

Pada awalnya, keberadaan psikolinguistik bermula dari adanya ketertarikan pakar linguistik pada bidang psikologi dan adanya pakar psikologi yang berkecimpung dalam linguistik. Kemudian berlanjut dengan adanya kerja sama antara pakar linguistik dan pakar psikologi, dan kemudian muncullah pakar-pakar psikolinguistik sebagai disiplin ilmu.

Psikolinguistik merupakan sebuah disiplin ilmu yang berada di antara psikologi dan linguistik (kebahasaan). Dengan kata lain, psikolinguistik merupakan disiplin ilmu yang bertujuan mencari satu teori bahasa yang secara linguistik bisa diterima dan secara psikologi dapat menerangkan hakikat bahasa dan pemerolehannya. Lado (dalam file.upi.edu/…Psikolinguistik/, 2013) mendefinisikan Psikolinguistik sebagai pendekatan gabungan melalui psikologi dan linguistik bagi telaah atau studi pengetahuan bahasa, bahasa dalam pemakaian, perubahan bahasa, dan hal-hal yang berkaitan dengan itu, yang tidak mudah dicapai atau didekati melalui salah satu dari kedua ilmu tersebut secara terpisan atau sendiri-sendiri.

Objek psikolinguistik adalah bahasa, gejala jiwa, dan hubungan di antara keduanya. Bahasa yang berproses dalam jiwa manusia yang tercermin dalam gejala jiwa. Bahasa dilihat dari aspek psikologis, yakni proses bahasa yang terjadi pada otak (mind), baik pada otak pembicara maupun otak pendengar.

Aspek-aspek yang penting dalam garapan psikolinguistik, antara lain (dalam file.upi.edu/…Psikolinguistik/, 2013) :

(1) kompetensi (proses bahasa dalam komunikasi dan pikiran)

(2) akuisisi (pemerolehan bahasa)

(3) performansi (pola tingkah laku berbahasa)

(4) asosiasi verbal dan persoalan makna

(5) proses bahasa pada orang abnormal

(6) persepsi ujaran dan bahasa

(7) pembelajaran bahasa

Sedangkan pada bahasan ini, penulis akan menjabarkan 3 materi pokok dalam bidang psikolinguistik : bahasa dan otak, bahasa dan pikiran, dan pemerolehan bahasa pertama.

2.             Kajian Psikolinguistik

 a.      Bahasa dan Otak

Bahasa tidak dapat dipisahkan dengan otak, karena di otak terjadi pemrosesan bahasa sehingga dapat diproduksi oleh manusia. Otak merupakan benda putih yang lunak yang terdapat di dalam rongga tengkorak yang menjadi pusat saraf. Otak juga merupakan alat berpikir.

Kompetensi dan performansi berbahasa merupakan pekerjaan otak. Otak bekerja karena mekanisme saraf. Ilmu tentang urat saraf (neuron) dan penyakit pada urat saraf (neurosis) serta gangguan saraf (neurotik) disebut neurologi.  Fritz & Hitzig (1874) membagi otak manusia menjadi dua bagian, yakni hemisper kiri (left hemisphere) dan hemisper kanan (right hemisphere). Kedua sisi otak ini masing-masing memiliki fungsi khusus dan berbeda. Hemisper kanan digunakan sebagai pusat untuk mengawasi kesadaran letak tubuh dan anggota badan lainnya serta tugas-tugas mengenal ruang serta mengontrol anggota gerak sebelah kiri. Selain itu, otak bagian ini juga bertugas mengawasi suara. Sedangkan hemisper kiri digunakan sebagai pusat kemampuan berbicara dan pengontrol anggota gerak sebelah kanan.

Broca dalam Fauziati (1861) menyebutkan bahwa kemampuan berbicara berpusat pada otak sebelah kiri atau hemisper kiri agak ke depan. Bagian ini terkenal dengan sebutan daerah Broca (Broca’s area), yang berfungsi menguasai ujaran. Ada empat faktor dasar ujaran, yakni: sebuah ide, hubungan konvensional antara ide dan kata, cara penggandengan gerak artikulasi dengan kata, dan penggunaan alat-alat artikulasi. Apabila bagian depan (anterior) dari hemisper kiri terluka atau sakit, maka manusia akan mengalami gangguan artikulasi atau pengucapan, misalnya, ucapan kurang jelas, lafal kurang baik, kalimat-kalimat menjadi tak gramatikal, dan berbicara tidak lancar. Meskipun begitu, penderita penyakit ini masih mampu mengungkapkan kalimat-kalimat bermakna sesuai dengan tujuan komunikasinya. Penyakit seperti ini di kalangan neurolog disebut Broca’s aphasia.

Rata-rata berat otak manusia berkisar antara 1 hingga 1,5 kg atau 2,25 hingga 3,25 pon. Berat otak akan meningkat seiring dengan pertambahan usia, terutama pada usia 1 hingga 2 tahun. Ketika berusia 16 tahun, kapasitas otak telah mencapai 80% dari bobot total 100% otak manusia dewasa (Taylor dalam Fauziati, 2008). Antara hemisper kiri dan kanan dihubungkan oleh serabut yang disebut Corpus callosum. Corpus callosum ini berfungsi mengkomunikasikan antara hemisper kiri dan kanan. Serabut ini juga berfungsi sebagai principle integrator dan koordinator dalam proses mental yang terjadi pada dua belahan otak tersebut. Setiap belahan otak ini dibagi kedalam 4 bagian atau lobus, dari bagian depan sampai belakang terdapat lobus frontal, lobus temporal, lobus parietal, dan lobus oksipital.

Lobus frontal merupakan area yang bertanggung jawab mengontrol gerakan, yang bernama primary motor-cortex, pre-motor cortex, dan area yang berhubungan dengan produksi bahasa yang bernama Broca’s area, umumnya area ini bertanggung jawab atas kesadaran. Kemudian ada lobus parietal yang berisi primary somesthetic cortex yang bertanggung jawab atas rasa tubuh. Pada area ini juga terdapat bagian yang bertanggung jawab atas bahasa  yang disebut angular gyrus, umumnya  bertanggunggung jawab sebagai perasa somesthetic (seperti rasa di lengan, kaki, wajah, dsb). Ketiga, terdapat lobus temporal yang berisi primary auditory cortex yang bertanggung jawab dalam proses mendengar dan juga dikenal dengan nama Wernicke’s area. Keempat, yakni lobus oksipital yang berisi visual cortex yang memproses informasi dalam proses melihat.

Peranan otak dalam pemerolehan bahasa sangatlah penting, hal ini terlihat dari adanya proses Lateralisasi pada otak dimana lateralisasi ini merupakan proses pembedaan fungsi yang terjadi baik di hemisper kiri maupun kanan, dimana salah satu hemisper menjadi lebih dominan atau memiliki spesialisasi pada fungsi masing-masing. Bukti dari adanya lateralisasi pada otak terlihat dari adanya pasien yang menagalami “split brain” yaitu suatu kondisi dimana dua belahan otak berdiri pada fungsinya masing-masing. Selain itu, Steinberg et al. dalam Fauziati (2008) juga berpendapat bahwa kedua belahan otak pamemepunyai struktur dan fungsi khusus dimana beberapa fungsi terjadi di hemisphere kiri dan sisanya berada pada hemisphere kanan. Jadi, pemisahan fungsi inilah yang disebut proses Lateralisasi.

Pada manusia, hubungan proses lateralisasi sangat mempengaruhi kemampuan dalam penggunaan bahasa. Berdasarkan penemuan dalam penelitian Brain Lateralization, ditemukan bahwa bagian otak yang paling dominan dalam produksi bahasa yakni hemisper kiri. Nickerson dalam Garman (1990) menegemukakan bahwa otak mengendalikan setiap gerak, aktivitas, atau kegiatan manusia. Kegiatan menulis dan berpikir lebih banyak dikendalikan oleh belahan otak kiri. Hal ini dapat dilihat dalam skema daerah dominasi otak kiri dan otak kanan berikut ini.

DAERAH DOMINASI

NO. OTAK KIRI OTAK KANAN
1. Intelektual Intuitif
2. Mengingat nama Mengingat wajah
3. Tanggap terhadap penje-lasan dan instruksi verbal. Tanggap terhadap demonstrasi, ilustrasi, atau instruksi simbolik.
4. Percobaan sistematis dan dengan pengendalian. Percobaan acak dan dengan sedikit pengendalian.
5. Membuat pertimbanganObjektif Membuat pertimbangansubjektif
6. Terencana dan tersusun Berubah-ubah dan spontan
7. Lebih suka kenyataan, informasi yan dipahami. Lebih suka hal yang sukar dipahami.
8. Pembaca analisis Pembaca sistematis
9. Bergantung pada bahasa dalam Bergantung pada kesan
10. Lebih suka berbicara dan menulis Lebih suka menggambar dan memanipulasi objek.
11. Lebih suka tes pilihan ganda Lebih suka pertanyaan terbuka
12. Kurang baik menginter-pretasi bahasa tubuh. Baik menginterpretasi bahasa tubuh.
13. Mengendalikan perasaan Lebih bebas dengan perasaan
14. Jarang menggunakanMetafora Sering menggunakanmetafora
15. Menyenangi pemecahan masalah secara logis. Menyenangi pemecahan masa-lah secara intuitif.

Proses lateralisasi terjadi semenjak anak baru lahir sampai berusia lima tahun (Krashen dalam Fauziati, 2008). Ketika proses lateralisasi selesai, maka seseorang dikatakan telah memasuki fase dimana otot-otot dan sel-sel otaknya tidak lagi lentur dan fleksibel untuk memproduksi suatu bahasa sebaik penutur aslinya (Lenneberg dalam Fauziati, 2008). Jika seorang anak mendapatkan input yang bagus (berada di lingkungan yang mendukung suatu bahasa, misalnya bahasa inggris) dimana proses lateralisasi masih berjalan, maka anak tersebut memiliki kesempatan untuk dapat memproduksi bahasa sebaik penutur asli bahasa Inggris.

Seseorang yang mengalami gangguan berbicara seperti gagap dapat diindikasikan mengalami gangguan atau kelainan pada salah satu bagian otaknya. Untuk mampu berbahasa diperlukan kemampuan pemahaman (resepsi) dan kemampuan produksi (ekspresi). Implikasinya ialah daerah Broca dan Wernicke harus berfungsi secara penuh. Kerusakan pada salah satu atau kedua daerah tersebut akan mengakibatkan gangguan berbahasa yang disebut aphasia.

Aphasia dapat dibedakan atas 2 jenis : aphasia motorik (ekspresif) atau aphasia Broca dan aphasia sensorik (reseptif) atau aphasia Wernicke seperti dalam diagram berikut ini.

Kerusakan otak yang dominan dapat mengakibatkan aphasia motorik, kerusakan dapat terletak pada lapisan permnukaan (lesi kortikal) daerah Broca, di lapisan di bawah permukaan (lesi subkortikal) daerah Broca, atau antara daerah Broca dan daerah Wernicke (lesi transkortikal). Aphasia motorik kortikal ialah hilangnya kemampuan untuk mengutarakan isi pikiran dengan menggunakan perkataan. Ia mengerti bahasa lisan dan tulis, tetapi tidak mampu berekspresi secara verbal, meskipun masih mampu dengan menggunakan isyarat. Kemudian, Aphasia motorik subkortikal ialah penderita tidak mampu mengutarakan isi pikirannya dengan menggunakan perkataan, namun masih bisa dengan cara membeo. Pemaknaan ekspresi verbal dan visual tidak terganggu, bahkan 80 % ekspresi visualnya normal. Sedangkan Aphasia motorik transkortial (aphasia nominatif) ialah aphasia yang masih dapat mengutarakan isi pikiran dengan menggunakan perkataan yang singkat dan tepat, namun masih mungkin menggunakan perkataan penggantinya. Misalnya, tidak mampu menyebut nama barang yang dipegangnya, tetapi tahu kegunaannya.

Aphasia sensorik terjadi akibat lesi kortial di daerah Wernicke pada hemisper yang dominan. Daerah itu terletak di kawasan asosiatif antara daerah visual, sensorik, motorik, dan pendengaran. Kerusakan pada daerah Wernicke akan mengakibatkan kehilangan pengertian bahasa lisan dan tulis, namun ia masih memiliki curah verbal, sekalipun tidak dipahami oleh dirinya maupun orang lain. Curah verbal ini merupakan neologisme, yakni bahasa baru yang tidak dimengerti oleh siapa pun, biasanya diucapkan dengan irama, nada, dan melodi yang sesuai dengan bahasa asing yang ada. Ia bersikap biasa, tidak tegang, ataupun depresif.

b.      Bahasa dan Pikiran

Pikiran (mind) merupakan hasil berpikir atau memikirkan; akal budi atau ingatan; akal atau daya upaya; angan-angan atau gagasan; dan niat atau maksud. Sedangkan kegiatan menggunakan akal budi untuk mempertimbangkan dan merumuskan sesuatu, menimbang-nimbang dalam ingatan, disebut berpikir. Lalu, apa hubungan antara bahasa dan pikiran? Sudut pandang Chomsky (2006) teentang keterkaitan akan bahasa dan pikiran lebih merujuk pada bagaimana kompetensi dan performansi masing-masing orang dalam menggunakan bahasa.

Salah satu materi yang memiliki hubungan dengan bahasa dan pikiran ini yaitu mental lexicon. Mental lexicon diibaratkan seperti kamus yang ada dalam otak manusia. Secara umum, mental leksikon (Crystal dalam Syamsuar, 2010) menyatakan bahwa mental leksikon adalah istilah yang mengacu kepada representasi yang tersimpan di dalam otak mengenai apa yang seseorang ketahui tentang butir leksikal dalam bahasanya. Kemudian Richards et al. dalam Syamsuar (2010) lebih lanjut menjelaskan bahwa sebenarnya leksikon adalah rangkaian kata atau idiom dalam sebuah bahasa. Lebih jauh lagi ia menjelaskan bahwa leksikon bahwa leksikon merupakan sebuah sistem mental yang mengandung semua informasi yang diketahui seseorang tentang kata. Ia juga mengatakan bahwa menurut para ahli psikolinguistik bahwa pengetahuan tentang kata mencakup tiga (3) hal yakni : pengetahuan tentang bagaimana sebuah kata diucapkan; pola-pola gramatikal yang bersama pola-pola itu dan bagaimana sebuah kata digunakan; dan makna atau beberapa makna dari sebuah kata. Dengan kata lain, jumlah kata yang diketahui oleh seorang pengguna bahasa membentuk mental leksikonnya.

Ketika seseorang menginternalisasikan pengetahuannya, maka dia akan menggunakan mental leksikonnya dimana ia mengandalkan properti dari kata-kata itu : bunyi (bagaimana melafalkan kata); sintaksis (bagaimana menggunakan sekumpulan kata); semantik (bagaimana mengidentifikasi makna); dan pragmatik (bagaimana menggunakan kata-kata sesuai dengan konteksnya).

Salah satu bahasan lain yang tidak kalah pentinnya berkaitan dengan mental leksikon yakni Memori. Kebanyakan dari kita percaya bahwa memori adalah rekaman permanen tentang pengalaman kita. Dalam hal ini, kita menyakini bahwa tidak ada hal yang hilang sedikit pun. Setiap hal yang pernah kita alami tersimpan di dalam otak kita, dalam hal ini memori.

Memori memiliki peranan yang sangat penting di dalam penggunaan bahasa. Ini merupakan tempat dimana suara dan kata (makna kata) tersimpan, dan disini juga adalah tempat dimana ide (konsep) serta gagasan dibentuk. Berdasarkan lokasinya, memori dibagi kedalam tiga bagian : sensory register, short term memory (ingatan jangka pendek), dan long term memory (ingatan janka panjang) (Taylor dalam Fauziati, 2008).

Sensory register merupakan tempat dimana stimulus diterima, kemudian menahannya untuk beberapa saat, kemudian dianalisa sebelum kemudian diteruskan. Register yang terpisah memiliki fungsi yang berbeda untuk setiap rangsangan, seperti visual (grafik) dan auditory (suara). Sensory register ini sangat berperan dalam proses bahasa lisan dan tulisan. Misalnya ketika seseorang memproduksi bunyi yang berupa kata-kata, auditory images akan teregistrasi pada auditory register. Maksudnya, ketika seseorang memproduksi sebuah kata, maka gambaran visuakl akan tersimpan dalam visual register. Informasi dari sensori register ini kemudian  diteruskan menuju short term memory.

Short term memory merupakan tempat dimana informasi ditahan dalam jangka waktu tertentu selama pemrosesan pesan. Informasi ini  datang dari sensory register. Setiap informasi yang bertahan lama di dalam short term memory untuk kemudian diproses, dipahami,  dan dianggap sangat penting atau perlu untuk diingat pada suatu saat kemudian akan tersimpan di dalam long term memory.

Sementara long term memory merupakan tempat dimana informasi tersimpan secara permanen. Ada 2 komponen berbeda dalam long term memory ini : episodic memory dan semantic memory. Episodic memory mengacu kepada informasi atau fakta atau kejadian-kejadian yang pernah dialami manusia dan jelas waktu terjadinya. Sedangkan semantic memory mengacu kepada apa yang orang ketahui tentang penetahuan, informasi tentang kebenaran umum, konsep, dan kosakata. Isi dari semantic memory ini bersifat eksplisit, diketahui, dan dapat diingat kembali pada masa yang akan datang.

Ketika seseorang telah melewati fase pemerolehan bahasa dimana mental leksikon dan memori sudah mendukung, maka dengan sendirinya orang tersebut dikatakan mampu memproduksi bahasa. Maka orang yang bersangkutan akan mengetahui hubungan atau keterkaitan antara suara dan makna dalm bahasa tanpa menyadari atau berpikir secara sengaja tentang kaidah grammar, hal ini disebut dengan kompetensi. Chomsky (1965) mengemukakan bahwa kompetensi mengacu pada pengetahuan dasar tentang suatu sistem, peristiwa atau kenyataan. Kompetensi ini bersifat abstrak, tidak dapat diamati, karena kompetensi terdapat dalam alam pikiran manusia. Yang dapat diamati adalah gejala-gejala kompetensi yang tampak dari perilaku (kebahasaan) manusia seperti berbicara, berjalan, menyanyi, menari dan sebagainya. Sedangkan performansi merefleksikan proses yang sebenarnya dalam memproduksi dan memahami bahasa. Dalam kenyataan yang aktual, performansi itu tidak sepenuhnya mencerminkan kompetensi kebahasaan. Chomsky (1965) mengemukakan bahwa dalam pemakaian bahasa secara konkret banyak ditemukan penyimpangan kaidah, kekeliruan, namun semua itu masih dapat dipahami oleh pembicara-pendengar karena mereka mempunyai kompetensi kebahasaan.

Seorang penutur bisa saja mengalami kesalahan atau kekeliruan dalam memproduksi kata atau suara, bagian kata, kata, maupun bagian kalimat (speech errors). Ada beberapa jenis speech error (Fauziati, 2008), yakni : Semantic error dimana kesalahan terjadi karena kemiripan makna atau arti. Semantic error seringkali terjadi pada pemilihan kata dimana kata yang dimaksudkan memiliki makna diisi oleh kata yang salah (dari kelas kata yang sama), dimana kata-kata ini secara semantik berkaitan (misalnya antonim, hiponim, dsb). Clark and Clark dalam Fauziati (2008) mengemukakan bahwa error terjadi karena terdapat kata yang mengganggu keberadaan kata yang telah ada di leksikon sebelumnya karena adanya keterkaitan secara semantik. Kedua, yakni Malaporism dimana seseorang mengalami gangguan dalam pemilihan kata dikarenakan kata-kata yang bersangkutan memiliki kesamaan bunyi. Misalnya derangement untuk arrangement, alligator untuk allegory, dan tambourines untuk trampolines. Dalam hal ini, kata yang mengganggu dan menyebabkan error secara fonetis berkaitan atau memilik kesamaan dengan kata target (Taylor dalam Fauziati, 2008). Jenis error yang terakhir yaitu Blends dimana hal ini terjadi ketika dua kata bergabung untuk membentuk sebuah kata baru. Error jenis ini jarang terjadi dan hanya terjadi pada sebagian orang saja. Ketika sebuah konsep ingin diekspresikan oleh seorang penutur dengan menggunakan dua kata yang memiliki kemiripan, maka dia bisa menjadi ragu akan kata mana yang bisa merepresentasikan idenya, kemudian dia mungkin memilih dua kata kemudian menggabungkannya menjadi satu kata (Taylor in Fauziati, 200\8) (misalnya please exland that, instead of explain and expand) (Atchinson in Fauziati, 2008).

c.       Pemerolehan Bahasa Pertama

Pemerolehan bahasa pertama berkaitan dengan pembahasan sebelumnya, yakni pada Lateralisasi. Dikatakan sebelumnya bahwa seseorang akan memiliki kemampuan seperti penutur asli suatu bahasa apabila pada masa lateralisasi diekspos dengan input yang mendukung. Misalnya suasana dalam lingkungan keluarga yang berkomunikasi dengan menggunakan bahasa Inggris dalam kesehariannya. Lenneberg dalam Fauziati (20080 mengemukakan bahwa terdapat periode kritis (critical period/golden age period) dimana proses pemerolehan bahasa terjadi secara alami, dan ini terjadi semenjak masih bayi sampai memasuki periode pubertas. Lebih jauh lagi Taylor dalam Fauziatin (2008) menguatkan bahwa bahasa diperoleh lebih cepat pada masa kritis ini dimana :

  1. Seorang anak normal memperoleh bahasa tidak melalui proses formal (pendidikan) tetapi melalui kegitana atau aktivitas informal dan feedback (timbal balik.
  2. Seorang anak yang hidup di suatu lingkungan dengan 2 atau 3 bahasa selama periode ini akan menyerap semua bahasa tersebut sama baiknya dengan anak-anak lainnya yang seumuran yang dihadapkan pada satu bahasa saja.

Selain itu, pada masa Lateralisasi juga terdapat Silent Period, dimana seorang anak yang masih berumur di bawah 5 tahun akan mengalami fase diam. Dalam fase diam ini, dia akan menjadi diam, tetapi kediaman si anak ini bukan karena dia tidak mendapat input dari lingkungan atau tidak mengerti akan bentuk pertanyaan dan ujaran dari orang-orang disekitarnya. Tetapi si anak ini, terus menerima informasi-informasi hingga mencapai suatu masa dimana perkembangan otaknya telah matang dan Silent Period ini berakhir dan si anak tersebut mampu menggunakan bahasa untuk berkomunikasi layaknya orang dewasa. Orang tua yang memiliki anak dan sedang menjalani periode ini disarankan untuk memberikan input yang sebaik-baiknya kepada si anak, karena setiap kata yang di dengar oleh si anak akan langsung terserap olehnya.

3.        Kesimpulan

Psikolinguistik merupakan suatu disiplin ilmu yang berasal dari perpaduan antara psikologi dan linguistik. Kaitannya yakni bagaimana proses pemerolehan dan penggunaan bahasa ditinjau dari aspek psikologi. Dimulai dari struktur otak yang dimana di dalamnya terdapat suatu sistem yang sangat kompleks, masing-masing dari setiap bagian memiliki fungsi yang berbeda dalam hal bahasa. Belahan otak dengan fungsi masing-masing ini ternyata tidaklah cukup bagi seseorang untuk menjadi bekalnya dalam berbahasa, dibutuhkan suatu tempat dimana informasi mengenai bahasa tersimpan, yakni mental lexicon, serta kaitannya dengan memori, apakah suatu informasi disimpan dalam bentuk short term memory dan long term memory. Kesalahan dalam berbahasa juga dapat terjadi pada manusia. Untuk itu, seorang anak haruslah diberikan kesempatan sebaik-baiknya ketika ia dilahirkan, diberikan input yang sesuai, agar kelak ia mampu menjadi seorang manusia yang memiliki keseimbangan dalam psikologi dan linguistik yang merupakan bekal dari si anak dalam menjalani kehidupan di masa depannya, terutama dalam periode dewasanya.

REFERENSI

Chomsky, Noam.  1965. Aspects of The Theory of Syntax. Cambridge: The M.I.T. Press, h. 4

Chomsky, Noam. 2006. Language and Mind: USA. Cambridge University.

Fauziyati, Endang. 2008. An Introduction to Psycholinguistics. Surakarta : Muhammadiyah University Press.

Garman, Michael. 1990. Psycholinguistics. London: Cambridge University Press.

Syamsuar, Fauzi. 2010. Thesis Pasca-Sarjana : Perolehan Leksikon. Jakarta : FIB Universitas Indonesia.

Jurnal Online :

Koleksi Jurnal UPI. 2010. Psikolinguistik. Bandung. Universitas Pendidikan Indonesia Online Journal dalam file.upi.edu/…Psikolinguistik/, 2013, diakses pada 10 Juni 2013.

Website :

http://move14.wordpress.com/2008/09/12/kompetensi-dan-performansi-dalam-pendekatan-komunikatif/, diakses pada 10 Juni 2013.

http://aurigamaulana.blogspot.com/2013/02/definisi-psikolinguistik.html, diakses pada 10 Juni 2013.

This paper was proposed as one of the required assignments in Psycholinguistics lecture, guided by Drs. H. Priyono, MA., Ph.D.

ANTONYMY IN SEMANTICS

Semantics is a branch of linguistics which studies about meaning in language. Shortly, semantics concerns the study of meaning. There is relation among a word and the other words in semantics. It is called meaning relation. Basically, the principle of meaning relation consists of four major fields, such as synonymy, antonymy, polisemy, and hyponymy. Synonymy concerns the sameness of meaning, while antonymy concerns the oppositeness of meaning. The focus here is on antonymy which has a sense of relation, as well as synonymy. Sense is the meaning of word, especially the conceptual meaning in which it is usually derived from definition of the lexical items which can be found in dictionaries.

Antonymy is oppositeness of meaning between a word and the other word or among words in the same part of speech, such as good-bad (adjective-adjective) and fast-slowly (adverb-adverb). According to Lyons (1977:286) who states that antonymy covers the relation between lexical items whose meanings stand in opposition to each other and it is often thought as the opposite of synonymy. There are 2 issues which will be discuss here ; three kinds of antonymy and problem in differentiating the type of antonymy.

Palmer (1982:94-100) classifies three kinds of antonymy, those are : gradable antonymy, complementary antonymy, and relational antonymy.

  1. Gradable Antonymy

This type describes something which can be measured and compared with something else. For instance, if a truck can run 260 km/hour and the other one can run 200 km/hour, the first truck is fast and the other one is slow. This type is the commonest type of antonymy. Gradable antonymy deals with the level of words, it means that there is something/anything between. For instance, the one can say today is not hot, it may mean today is not cold. There is scale or space exist between hot and cold, it is warm. The other examples of gradable antonymy are shown below :

Wet-Dry

Young-Old

Easy-Difficult

Big-Small

Long-Short

There are three characteristics of gradable antonymy. Firstly, as the name suggests, they are gradable. The members of a pair differ in terms of degree. It is related to the explanation above. If something is not A, then it is not merely B, it can be C or D or E or etc. It may simply be “so-so” or “average”. To make them become super, they can be modified by “very”. Something may be very hot or very cold. And they may have comparative and superlative degrees. Sometimes the intermediate degrees may be lexicalized. They may be expressed by separate words rather than by adding modifiers. For example, the term for the size which is neither big nor small is medium. And between the two extremes of temperature hot and cold, there are warm and cool, which form a pair of antonyms themselves, and may have a further intermediate term lukewarm.

Second, this antonymy is graded against different norms. There is no absolute criterion by which we may say something is wet or dry, long or short, big or small. The criterion varies with the object described. A big ant is in fact much smaller than a small plane. A microwave is giant by the standard of microorganism. In this case, there is no such absolute requirement to make a standard of something to say in what grade they should be placed.

The third, very often one is marked and the other unmarked of gradable antonymy. The unmarked member is more neutral than the marked one and it is used in questions of degree. For example, we ask “How old are you?” rather than” How young are you? “; “How long is it?” rather than “How short is it’?” Thus old and long are the unmarked members of old/young and long/short. Of the antonymous pair hot/cold, hot is unmarked and cold marked. In the same fashion, big is unmarked and small marked; tall is unmarked and short unmarked.

Technically, the cover term is called “unmarked”, i.e. usual; and the covered “marked”, or unusual. That means, in general, it is the cover term that it is more often used. If the covered is used, then it suggests that there is something odd, unusual here. The speaker may already know that somebody/something is young, small, near and he wants to know the extent in greater detail. This characteristic is also reflected in the corresponding nouns, such as length, height, width, breadth and depth, which are cognates of the cover terms.

2.      Complementary Antonymy

This is the second type of antonymy which is very different from the first type. If something is A, then it is not B. If something is X, then it is Y. This the example of complementary antonymy. If something is on, then it is not off. The examples of complementary antonymy are shown below :

On-Off

Alive-Dead

Yes-No

Input-Output

Sharp-Dull

Male-Female

Complementary antonymy is the meaning of the word is absolute, not relative (reverse to gradable type), there is only one possibility of meaning which is fixed, there is no intermediate ground between two of them. If dead is existing, then one is not alive. There is no word to be existed between dead and alive, the word “half dead” is not possible to be put to state one is neither dead nor alive.

3.      Relational Antonymy

In the relational antonymy, the pairs of words are the reversal of a relationship of words. Palmer (1982) gives some examples below :

Buy-Sell

Lend-Borrow

Give-Receive

Husband-Wife

Parent-Child

Teacher-Pupil

According to the name of this type, between the two words have the relation. For instance, parent and child. Someone can’t be called parent if she/he doesn’t have child, and vice versa. To summarize, one exists only because the other does.

This is a special type of antonymy in which the members of a pair do not constitute a positive-negative opposition. They show the reversal of a relationship between two entities. X buys something from Y means the same as Y sells something to X. X is the parent of Y means the same as Y is the child of X. It is the same relationship seen from two different angles.

Those three types of antonymy are proposes by Palmer (1982). Futhermore, there is another type of antonymy, it is multiple antonymy.

Multiple Antonymy

Multiple antonymy is a word which has more than one opposition or it can be said the opposition of A is not merely because B has opposite meaning. For example, the antonym of happy can be sad, angry, disappointed, or disgruntled. It depends on the cause of it. It means that if the quality of one is lessened, it does not follow that the other is necessarily increased. Mira could be not happy without being more sad, for the reason that her happines is being diminished by her anger because her boyfriend decides to dump her.

In conclusion, according to Palmer (1982), the core of antonymy is the oppositeness of meaning, whether it is in gradable or complementary or relational, even in multiple form. With gradable and complementary, one may say A is good without presupposing B. It means that a matter with A has nothing to do with B. However, when one talks about relational antonymy, it must be always two sides. If she is a parent, then she has already had a child/children. Similarly, one cannot simply say “He is a son” without mentioning his parents. Now, some people may argue that we can say “He is a child“. However, this is a different sense of child. The word child here means “somebody under the age of 18″. In this sense, it is opposite to adult. When a man is above 18, he is no longer a child. In contrast, used in the sense of child opposite to parent, a man is always a child to his parents. Even when he is 80, he is still a child to his father and mother. Another word which may cause some trouble is teacher. It can be used in the sense of a profession. So, one can say “He is a teacher“, as against any other occupation, such as journalist, writer, actor, musician, or doctor. In the sense opposite to student, however, a man is a teacher only to his students. To other people, he is not a teacher. And to his own teacher, he becomes a student.

REFERENCES

 

Adisutrisno, D. Wagiman. 2008. Semantics : an introduction to the basics concepts. Bandung: PENERBIT ANDI.

http://linguallyspeaking.wordpress.com/2010/06/25/34/, accessed on December, 13rd 2012

http://www.talktalk.co.uk/reference/encyclopaedia/hutchinson/m0089382.html, accessed on December, 13rd 2012

http://course.cug.edu.cn/cug/eng_language/chpt5/5-3-2.htm, accessed on December, 13rd 2012