“AN ANALYSIS OF MANUAL BOOK OF NOKIA 110 IN TRANSLATING FROM ENGLISH INTO BAHASA INDONESIA’”
Globalization has brought many changes in human’s life. If decades ago people lived with limited movement, nowadays people are living under practical and sophisticated condition. As well as the communication, if its first people used wired telephone to communicate one another in different places, now people have used mobile phone/cellular phone which can be brought wherever and whenever one wants.
In line with the development of human needs, the technology used in mobile phone is also growing up. At the first, There are various kinds of mobile phones such as smartphones and android which are dominating mobile phone sales world today. With 237 billion people, Indonesia being the main target mobile phone sales in Asia. Because the mobile phone is a foreign country product, it is necessary to take the manual book/guide book which uses Bahasa Indonesia in order to help the users in operating the phone.
According to this phonemena, the writer wants to analyse the effectiveness of the use of the translation of English into Bahasa Indonesia in manual book of standard phone, NOKIA 110, whether it is parralel with the original form (English) from which is the translation product (Bahasa Indonesia) or not.
Before going to the discussion, the writer will give brief overview of Translation Theory in order to discover what kind of theory used in this manual book. Furthermore, it will give the explanation of the mistakes and uncommon sentence or words which can be found in the book.
2. The Theories of Translation
Translation is decoding meaning and intent at the text level and then re-encoding them in a target language is product, process, concept-general subject. It consists of changing from one to another state or form of texts across languages (Larson, 1998), consists of transferring ideas expressed in writing form from one language to another.
According to Jakobson (1959/2000), who states that translation is interpretation of verbal signs by means of other signs of the same language, some other language, signs of non-verbal sign systems, intralingual, interlingual, and intersemiotic. Furthermore, translation is not just about comparing two languages, but also about the interpretation of a text in two different languages, thus involving a shift between cultures.
Translation typically has been used to transfer written or spoken Second Language (SL) texts to equivalent written or spoken Target Language (TL) texts. In general, the purpose of translation is to reproduce various kinds of texts, including religious, literary, scientific, and philosophical texts in another language and thus making them available to wider readers. Culler (1976) writes that one of the troublesome problems of translation is the disparity among languages. The bigger the gap between the SL and the TL, the more difficult the transfer of message from the former to the latter will be.
Harvey (2000:2-6) states that there are four techniques for translating CBT (culture-based texts) as follows :
- Functional Equivalence: It means using a referent in the TL culture whose function is similar to that of the source language (SL) referent.
- Formal Equivalence or ‘linguistic equivalence’: It means a ‘word-for-word’ translation.
- Transcription or ‘borrowing’ (i.e. reproducing or, where necessary, transliterating the original term): It stands at the far end of SL-oriented strategies. If the term is formally transparent or is explained in the context, it may be used alone. In other cases, particularly where no knowledge of the SL by the reader is presumed, transcription is accompanied by an explanation or a translator’s note.
- Descriptive or self-explanatory translation: It uses generic terms (not CBTs) to convey the meaning. It is appropriate in a wide variety of contexts where formal equivalence is considered insufficiently clear. In a text aimed at a specialized reader, it can be helpful to add the original SL term to avoid ambiguity.
According to Nida (1964) who says that there are two procedures in translation as follows:
A. Technical procedures :
- Analysis of the source and target languages;
- A through study of the source language text before making attempts translate it;
- Making judgments of the semantic and syntactic approximations. (pp. 241-45)
B. Organizational Procedure
Constant re-evaluation of the attempt made; contrasting it with the existing available translations of the same text done by other translators, and checking the text’s communicative effectiveness by asking the target language readers to evaluate its accuracy and effectiveness and studying their reactions (pp. 246-47).
Basically, translation procedures are different from translation methods. Newmark (1988b) mentions the difference between translation methods and translation procedures. He writes that, “while translation methods relate to the whole texts, translation procedures are used for sentences and the smaller units of language” (p.81). He goes on to refer to the following methods of translation:
- Word-for-word translation: in which the SL word order is preserved and the words translated singly by their most common meanings, out of context.
- Literal translation: in which the SL grammatical constructions are converted to their nearest TL equivalents, but the lexical words are again translated singly, out of context.
- Faithful translation: it attempts to produce the precise contextual meaning of the original within the constraints of the TL grammatical structures.
- Semantic translation: which differs from ‘faithful translation’ only in as far as it must take more account of the aesthetic value of the SL text.
- Adaptation: which is the freest form of translation, and is used mainly for plays (comedies) and poetry; the themes, characters, plots are usually preserved, the SL culture is converted to the TL culture and the text is rewritten.
- Free translation: it produces the TL text without the style, form, or content of the original.
- Idiomatic translation: it reproduces the ‘message’ of the original but tends to distort nuances of meaning by preferring colloquialisms and idioms where these do not exist in the original.
- Communicative translation: it attempts to render the exact contextual meaning of the original in such a way that both content and language are readily acceptable and comprehensible to the readership (1988b: 45-47).
The following procedures are the different translation procedures that Newmark (1988b) proposes:
- Transference: it is the process of transferring an SL word to a TL text. It includes transliteration and is the same as what Harvey (2000:5) named “transcription.”
- Naturalization: it adapts the SL word first to the normal pronunciation, then to the normal morphology of the TL. (Newmark, 1988b:82)
- Cultural equivalent: it means replacing a cultural word in the SL with a TL one. however, “they are not accurate” (Newmark, 1988b:83)
- Functional equivalent: it requires the use of a culture-neutral word. (Newmark, 1988b:83)
- Descriptive equivalent: in this procedure the meaning of the CBT is explained in several words. (Newmark, 1988b:83)
- Componential analysis: it means “comparing an SL word with a TL word which has a similar meaning but is not an obvious one-to-one equivalent, by demonstrating first their common and then their differing sense components.” (Newmark, 1988b:114)
- Synonymy: it is a “near TL equivalent.” Here economy trumps accuracy. (Newmark, 1988b:84)
- Through-translation: it is the literal translation of common collocations, names of organizations and components of compounds. It can also be called: calque or loan translation. (Newmark, 1988b:84)
- Shifts or transpositions: it involves a change in the grammar from SL to TL, for instance, (i) change from singular to plural, (ii) the change required when a specific SL structure does not exist in the TL, (iii) change of an SL verb to a TL word, change of an SL noun group to a TL noun and so forth. (Newmark, 1988b:86)
- Modulation: it occurs when the translator reproduces the message of the original text in the TL text in conformity with the current norms of the TL, since the SL and the TL may appear dissimilar in terms of perspective. (Newmark, 1988b:88)
- Recognized translation: it occurs when the translator “normally uses the official or the generally accepted translation of any institutional term.” (Newmark, 1988b:89)
- Compensation: it occurs when loss of meaning in one part of a sentence is compensated in another part. (Newmark, 1988b:90)
- Paraphrase: in this procedure the meaning of the CBT is explained. Here the explanation is much more detailed than that of descriptive equivalent. (Newmark, 1988b:91)
- Couplets: it occurs when the translator combines two different procedures. (Newmark, 1988b:91)
- Notes: notes are additional information in a translation. (Newmark, 1988b:91).
According to Viney & Darbelnet (cited in Munday, 2001: 56) who state translating procedure in two general strategies below :
- Direct Strategy :
- Literal translation is a word-for-word transfer of the ST into TT by considering the appropriateness of the TT grammar and the ST idiom,
- Borrowing is usually applied when the concept in ST is very much unknown and strange for TT readers,
- Calque is a special borrowing that can ease translators for the literally direct translation of every word.
2. Oblique Strategy
- Modulation procedure is how to express a concept in other form of message. Passive voice can be expressed in active as the nature of the TL. Whatever the emphasis of the ST sentence can be expressed in different form as long as the main message of the text is transferred into TT.
- Equivalence is used to describe the same situation in different stylistic or structural means. This procedure is much helpful and functional in translating idioms and proverbs.
- Adaptation involves changing the cultural reference when the situation in the source culture does not exist in the target culture. The closest concept to the target culture is employed to describe the term in source culture Munday (2001). The wand used by the witches of English may be translated into keris sakti or cincin keramat in Indonesian.
Finally, the writer will give the final description about the steps that the one must pass in translating process as bellow :
- Establishing the project
- Exegesis: reading the text
- Glossing: giving a short (usually one-word) equivalent for each term
- Initial Drafting: a quick rough translation the text
- Evaluating: accuracy, clearness, naturalness
- Revised Drafting: checking for consistency
- Consultation: meeting the clients
- Final Drafting: finishing for acceptability.
The writer will give the preliminary description about the translation of English into Bahasa Indonesia through the contents below :
|Buku Petunjuk Nokia 110||Nokia 110 User Guide|
|Tabel dan komponen||Key and parts|
|Memasukkan kartu SIM dan baterai||Insert a SIM card and battery|
|Memasukkan atau mengeluarkan kartu SIM kedua||Insert or remove a second SIM card|
|Memasukkan kartu memori||Insert a memory card|
|Mengisi baterai||Charge the battery|
|Mengunci tombol||Lock the keys|
|Memasang tali||Attach a strap|
|Mengetahui ponsel Anda lebih lanjut||Explore your phone|
|Mengetahui kartu SIM yang akan digunakan||Set which SIM card to use|
|Menyalin konten dari ponsel lama||Copy conten from your old phone|
|Indikator di ponsel||Indicators on your phone|
|Membuat atau menjawab panggilan||Make or answer a call|
|Mengubah volume suara||Change the volume|
|Menyimpan nama dan nomor telepon||Save a name and phone number|
|Mengirim pesan||Send a message|
|Menulis teks||Write text|
|Mempersonalisasi layar awal||Personalise your home screen|
|Menambahkan cara pintas ke layar awal||Add shortcuts to your home screen|
|Mengubah nada dering||Change your ringtone|
|Mengatur alarm||Set an alarm|
|Menambah janji||Add an appointment|
|Mendengarkan radio||Listen to the radio|
|Memutar lagu||Play a song|
|Mengambil foto||Take a photo|
|Merekam video||Record a video|
|Menelusuri Web||Browse the Web|
|Menambah penanda||Add a bookmark|
|Mengkonfigurasi akun e-mail||Set up your mail account|
|Mengirim e-mail||Send a mail|
|Mengobrol dengan teman||Chat with your friends|
|Nokia Life (Key term)||Nokia Life|
|Mengirim foto menggunakan Bluetooth||Send a photo using Bluetooth|
|Mengunci ponsel||Lock your phone|
|Mengubah kode keamanan||Change the security code|
|Memperbarui perangkat lunak ponsel menggunakan ponsel||Update phone software using your phone|
|Mencadangkan konten ke kartu memori||Back up content to a memory card|
|Kode akses||Access codes|
|Aksesori asli Nokia||Nokia original accessories|
|Pedoman praktis tentang aksesori||Practical rules about accessories|
|Informasi umum||General information|
3. Collecting and Data Analyzing
After doing the analysis process of the manual book of NOKIA 110, the writer has found some uncommon words in it. Basically, the type of sentences used in this manual book are imperative. Imperative can be a grammatical mood expressing commands, direct requests, and prohibitions (syntax). Then, it can be a morphological item expressing commands, direct requests, and prohibitions (morphology). (Wikipedia).
According to Nordquist (2012) who states that imperative is a type of sentence that gives advice or instructions or that expresses a request or command. (Compare with sentences that make a statement, ask a question, or express an exclamation). An imperative sentence typically begins with the base form of a verb, as in Go now! The implied subject you is said to be “understood” (or elliptical): (You) go now!.
The writer has found that the use of imperative (kalimat perintah in Bahasa Indonesia) are commonly parrallel between English and Indonesian version. Imperative sentence is commonly found in procedure text that contains some steps. Here are the issues that the writer has found :
a. Page 13 : The lost of word “Setting” in English version (found in 38, 39 too)
It should not be happened in Translation process because it is the name of the feature in the phone. It is happen for 3 times (in pg. 13, 38, and 39). The writer doesn’t find the word “Setting” in English version, however, the writer finds the word “Pengaturan” in Bahasa Indonesia. According Viney & Darbelnet (cited in Munday, 2001: 56) who state translating procedure in two general strategies ; Direct and Oblique, it is not found there what kind of procedure used here. The writer thinks that it is as the error in reviewing process.
b. Page 26 : The use word “Need” to state “harus” in Bahasa Indonesia
In the sentence “Harus mengingat janji? Tambahkan ke kalender”, comparing to “Need to remember an appointment? Add it to your calender”. There is no relation between word “harus” and need” in bahasa Indonesia. “Need” in bahasa Indonesia means “memerlukan”, “membutuhkan” (transitive verb). If “need” as the intransitive verb, it can have the meaning “harus”, but it will be ill form. Because modal “must” is more common in foreign language learner of English, especially Indonesian.
c. Page 28 : The use of “to play” that is not parallel with “diputar” in Bahasa Indonesia
In the third step of “Play a song”, the writer finds unparallel word. Let’s take a look at the sentences below :
- Pilih lagu yang akan diputar
- Select the song you want to play
Between these 2 sentence, the writer thinks that there are no parallelism. Because between “diputar” and “to play” are diferent, passive form and infinitive. Futhermore, if the writer look on the Modulation procedure in Oblique Strategy, it can be used. Modulation is how to express a concept in other form of message. Passive voice can be expressed in active as the nature of the TL. Whatever the emphasis of the ST sentence can be expressed in different form as long as the main message of the text is transferred into TT. As long as it is understanable, the use of different form can be applied.
d. Page 29 : One of the name of the feature is not blackened in English or Indonesian version
By looking through the manual book, the writer arrives to a conclusion that the name of the features which are “borrowing terms” are not translated into Bahasa Indonesia. Furthermore, they are in “bold” condition or “blackened”. Look into the following sentences:
- The photos are saved in My photos.
- Foto akan disimpan di Foto saya.
The writer thinks that it is as the error in translation and printing process, because it is not blackened. In addition, sentence “The photos will be saved in My photos” is more suitable to state that when select “Capture/Ambil”, the photo will be automatically saved in “My Photos/Foto Saya”.
e. Page 35 : The difference between English and Indonesian version to state “while on the move” as “dimanapun Anda berada”
Take a look on these sentences below :
- You can chat with your friends online while on the move.
- Anda dapat mengobrol dengan teman yang online dimanapun Anda berada.
It is more suitable if the manual book use “whereever you are” rather than “while on the move”. Because “while on the move” can mean “saat bepergian” or “sewaktu beraktivitas” or “saat dalam perjalanan” or “pada saat bergerak”. The writer prefer to use one of them rather than “dimanapun Anda berada” to state while on the move. Furthermore, it can be an ambiguity because it can be anywhere.
f. Page 36 : The use of “relevant info” rather than “personal info” to state “info pribadi”
According to Collin COBUILD Dictionary CD-ROM 2006, it is defined that relevant is a situation or person is important or significant in that situation or that person. The second meaning defines relevant as the relevant thing of a particular kind is the one that is appropriate. While “personal” is opinion, quality, or thing belongs or relates to one particular person rather than to other people.
So, the writer concludes that the word “personal” is more suitable to be put in “personal info” in the feature of Nokia Life.
g. Page 37 : The use of reduce clause in English version to state “Mengirim foto yang telah diambil ke PC”. (39 too)
The use of reduce clause then translating into Indonesian version, the writer thinks that the book must give a complete clause here. Take a lokk to the sentences below :
- Send a photo you have taken to your PC (pg. 37)
- Create your own security code, so only you know how to unlock your phone (pg. 39)
- Mengirim foto yang telah diambil ke PC.
- Buat kode keamanan Anda sendiri, sehingga hanya Anda yang dapat membuka penguncian ponsel.
Although in Modulation procedure it is allowed to change the form in translation as long as it is understanable, but the writer thinks that it must be in complete clause. “Send a photo that you have taken to your PC” and “ Create your own security code, so only you who know how to unlock your phone” are more understanable by the readers of the manual book.
h. Page 38 : The use of “Unlock” is not parallel with “Aktifkan”
Although “Unlock” is the name of the feature in the phone, the writer suggests here that the Indonesian version must be “Buka kunci”. So, “Activate” is preferable to state “Aktifkan” in Bahasa Indonesia.
According to Collin COBUILD Dictionary CD-ROM 2006 and Cambridge Learner’s Dictionary 2nd Edition, both of them are defined as follows :
- If you unlock something such as a door, a room, or a container that has a lock, you open it using a key (Unlock).
- If you lock the potential or the secrets of something or someone, you release them (Unlock).
- To open something which is locked using a key (Unlock)
- To make something start working (Activate).
- If device or process is activated, something causes it starts to working (Activate).
By looking to the definitions above, “Unlock” is preferable with “Buka kunci” in Indonesian version because the meaning is the nearest.
i. Page 38 : The use of progressive in English version is not parallel with the use of passive in Indonesian version
In line with Bosco (2012), who states modulation consists of using a phrase that is different in the source and target languages to convey the same idea. It changes the semantics and shifts the point of view of the source language. Through modulation, the translator generates a change in the point of view of the message without altering meaning and without generating a sense of awkwardness in the reader of the target text.
Futhermore, the change here altering the meaning of the Target Language (Bahasa Indonesia). Below are the sentences :
- Atur agar ponsel terkunci secara otomatis bila tidak digunakan.
- Set your phone to automatically lock itself when you’re not using it.
The issues here can be both from English and Indonesian version. If the writer focus here is in Indonesian, the English version should be “Set your phone to automatically lock itself when it is not used”. It is more preferable than the original version. If the writer focus is on the English version, Indonesian version must be “Atur agar ponsel terkunci secara otomatis bila tidak sedang digunakan”. The addition of “sedang” indicates that the English version is in progressive form.
j. Page 39 : The use of word “using” to state “berisi” in Indonesian version
In fifth (5) steps of “Change the security code”, the writer finds the word use of “using” in:
- Type in a new code, using at least 5 numbers.
- Masukkan kode baru yang minimal berisi 5 angka.
The using of word “containing” is more preferable than using of “using” based on the definition from Collin CO-BUILD Dictionary CD-ROM 2006 :
- If you use something, you do something with it in order to do a job or to achieve a particular result or effect (use).
- If substance contains something, that thing is a part of it (contain).
- If you contain something, you control it and prevent it from spreading or increasing (contain).
By looking to the definition especially to the last, “containing” is more preferable to be used related to the feature of the phone “Security Code”. Then in Bahasa Indonesia, “berisi” is more prefereable with “contain” rather than “use”.
k. Page 41 : The use of “problem” to state “masalah” which is not parallel with the previous page that is written “issue” in page 40
To state “masalah” in English, the common word use is “problem”. However, in Cambridge Learner’s Dictionary 2nd Edition, “issue” is preferable with “masalah” in Bahasa Indonesia. The writer concludes that both of them can be choosen to be used.
The problem here is unparalled between the use of “issue” in the sentence “if you have an issue, do the following :” with the use of “problem” in “The update may take several minutes. If you encounter problems, contact your service provider”.
It should be parallel between the first and the following pages. It is more preferable if in the first page “if you have a problem, do the following” to state “jika Anda memiliki masalah, lakukan langkah-langkah berikut ini”. Then it will be parallel with the following page to state “Pembaruan dapat berlangsung selama beberapa menit. Jika mengalami masalah, hubungi penyedia layanan jaringan Anda”.
l. Page 43 : The use of word “kode” that changes into “these” in English version
The next problem is the use of “kode” in sentence which is different from the English version :
- Kode tersebut melindungi SIM dari penggunaan tidak sah atau diperlukan untuk mengakses beberapa fitur.
- Jika salah memasukkan kode sebanyak tiga kali berturut-turut, Anda harus membatalkan pemblokiran kode dengan kode PUK atau PUK2.
Take a look on the English version, there are unparallelism here :
- These protect your SIM against unauthorised use or are required to access some features.
- If you type in the code incorrectly three times in a row, you need to unblock the code with the PUK or PUK2 code.
It is looked here the unparallism among these 4 sentences. It should be “The code/these codes protect …..” or “If you type these/these codes incorrectly three times in a row….”. So, the paralellism will be shown between English and Indonesian version.
m. Page 44 : The use of “your phone will require service” to state “ponsel harus dibawa ke pusat layanan” in which make ambiguity
There is an ambiguity here if the consumers who understand English and Bahasa Indonesia when read the manual book together at the same time. The ambiguity is on :
- If you forget the code and your phone is locked, your phone will require service.
- Jika Anda lupa kode dan ponsel terkunci, ponsel harus dibawa ke pusat layanan.
The Indonesian customers, when they have problem with the phone, majority of them prefer to bring their phone/mobile phone to the counter that actually doesn’t have authority to repair the dveice/mobile phone. Between “….your phone will require service” and “….ponsel harus dibawa ke pusat layanan” are ambigious. It sshould written “If you forget the code and your phone is locked, your phone must be brought to the Service Center”.
Based on the collecting and data analyzing, the writer concludes that manual book of NOKIA 110 uses Communicative Translation. It aims to make the reader understand in operating the device, although, there are some terms which are not translated, because they are borrowing words which can’t be found in the target language (Bahasa Indonesia) so it must be put in the original forms. In Communicative Translation, the text is brought to the new people of certain environment to be assimilated in it, in order to be enjoyed and assimilated by the new people and as long as it is understanable, acceptable and comprehensible by them.
Cambridge Learner’s Dictionary 2nd Edition.
Collin COBUILD Dictionary on CD-ROM 2006.
http://www.bokorlang.com/journal/41culture.htm, accessed on November 28th, 2012.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Imperative, accessed on December 2nd, 2012.
http://grammar.about.com/od/il/g/impersent09.htm, accessed on December 2nd, 2012.
http://www.interproinc.com/articles.asp?id=0303, accessed om December 5th, 2012.