Globalization has brought many changes in human’s life. If decades ago people lived with limited movement, nowadays people are living under practical and sophisticated condition. The developmental of technology and human movements have given positive effects towards human movement and interaction. People before the twentieth century needed to master some important languages such as English, Spanish, France, Chinese, etc, however, people who are living after twentieth century do not need to master all the languages because of the andvances in invention.
English has been using globally since centuries ago. It is the most spoken language in the world. It is the native language of more than 350 million people worldwide. Since English has become the international language which has been used for communication, English has applied in many aspects in each country, including Indonesia. English has affected entire of many fields such as education, economy, politics, social-culture, religion, etc.
English is the only one language links the whole word together. By knowing English, it means that people can keep existing in this life. Nowadays, to find a job is hard. Each institution requires that an employee that wants to join in, must have the ability to use English. Not only the ability of mastering the spoken, but also the ability of mastering the written, read, and listened. So, that is why each country applies English into its curriculum in order to support its people and be able to keep surviving in this global era.
Human need to interact with the others, it is the nature of human, they have to socialize one another. It is not only for social reason, but also for economy, education, culture, and so on. For instance, in International Conference joined by the all countries whole over the world, each country will delegate its ambassador to represent its country. Countries that are non-native of English would use the services of an interpreter provided by the conference organizers.
Interpreting activity has become the main need when there are 2 people or more communicate together. Interpreting cannot be separated from translation, however, they are different. According to Wikipedia, translation defined as communication of the meaning of the source-language text by means of an equivalent of the target-language text. While interpreting defined as the facilitating other users of the other language either consecutively or simultaneously, orally. So, between translation and interpreting are basically have the same purpose with the same theory, it is to convey every semantic element and every intention and feeling that the message of the source language either text or speaker directing to target language recipient.
There are two types of interpreting activity, they are simultaneous interpretation and consecutive interpretation. In Simultaneous interpretation, the interpreter renders the message in the target language as fast as he/she can formulate from the source language, while the source language speaker continously speaks. While in consecutive interpretation, the interpreter speaks after the source language speaker pause or has finished speaking. When the speaker pause or stop his/her speaking, the interpreter then renders a portion of idea of the message or the whole message in the target language.
Newmark in Nababan (2008) states the method in translation process which can be brought into the interpretation methods :
- Word-for-word translation: in which the Source Language (SL) word order is preserved and the words translated singly by their most common meanings, out of context.
- Literal translation: in which the SL grammatical constructions are converted to their nearest Target Language (TL) equivalents, but the lexical words are again translated singly, out of context.
- Faithful translation: it attempts to produce the precise contextual meaning of the original within the constraints of the TL grammatical structures.
- Semantic translation: which differs from ‘faithful translation’ only in as far as it must take more account of the aesthetic value of the SL text.
- Adaptation: which is the freest form of translation, and is used mainly for plays (comedies) and poetry; the themes, characters, plots are usually preserved, the SL culture is converted to the TL culture and the text is rewritten.
- Free translation: it produces the TL text without the style, form, or content of the original.
- Idiomatic translation: it reproduces the ‘message’ of the original but tends to distort nuances of meaning by preferring colloquialisms and idioms where these do not exist in the original.
- Communicative translation: it attempts to render the exact contextual meaning of the original in such a way that both content and language are readily acceptable and comprehensible to the readership (1988b: 45-47).
Beside that, the interpreter can use the translation strategy in interpretation activity. According to Viney & Darbelnet (cited in Munday, 2001: 56 from http://http://www.ccsenet.org/journal/index.php/elt/article/download/2370/2234) who state translating procedure in two general strategies below :
1. Direct Strategy :
- Literal translation is a word-for-word transfer of the ST into TT by considering the appropriateness of the TT grammar and the ST idiom,
- Borrowing is usually applied when the concept in ST is very much unknown and strange for TT readers,
- Calque is a special borrowing that can ease translators for the literally direct translation of every word.
2. Oblique Strategy :
- Transposition procedure is expressing word with another class without changing the meaning of the message. In this procedure translator will have a wide-range of styles and options to express one concept.
- Modulation procedure is how to express a concept in other form of message. Passive voice can be expressed in active as the nature of the TL. Whatever the emphasis of the ST sentence can be expressed in different form as long as the main message of the text is transferred into TT.
- Equivalence is used to describe the same situation in different stylistic or structural means. This procedure is much helpful and functional in translating idioms and proverbs.
- Adaptation involves changing the cultural reference when the situation in the source culture does not exist in the target culture. The closest concept to the target culture is employed to describe the term in source culture Munday (2001). The wand used by the witches of English may be translated into keris sakti or cincin keramat in Indonesian.
This paper aims to analyze a video of consecutive interpretation activity which is done by the two English Department students of Bina Nusantara University entitled “How to learn English”. The analysis will consider the interpretation based on the theories above.
The interpretation video shows that the interpretation is derived from Bahasa Indonesia into English which uses consecutive method in which the interpreter speaks after speaker speaks one idea or point. Generally, this interpretation video is quite good although there are some unappropriate words used here. The interpreter considers to use common words or bring the indonesian words into English with the easy way to be understood by other people. There are 5 parts of activity will be analyzed here :
- Part 1
Tips on how to study English
Indonesian : Tetapkan tujuan.
English : First, set goals.
Indonesian : Agar lebih mudah dalam memotivasi diri anda belajar,
English : It opens much easier to motivate yourself to learn,
Indonesian : anda harus mempunyai suatu tujuan yang hendak dicapai.
English : You have something to aim for.
Indonesian : Tujuan-tujuan tersebut dapat berjangka pendek atau pun panjang.
English : That goals can be short term or long term.
In this part, the interpreter uses most common words for the first sentence “tetapkan tujuan”, then interpret this as “set goals”. It is use word-for-word, in which the interpreter uses the words in the target language which have the most common meanings. Furthermore, it has been expanded in the next sentence “agar lebih mudah dalam memotivasi diri anda belajar, anda harus mempunyai suatu tujuan yang hendak dicapai”, then “it opens meuch easier to motivate yourself to learn, you have something to aim for”. It is good, the interpreter considers to use contextual meaning, in which it doesn’t use word-for-word like in the previous sentence. While in the third sentence, it is good either, the interpreter uses literal in which she fits the source-language with the target-language.
- Part 2
Indonesian : Dua, Siap bekerja keras.
English : Second, be prepare to work hard.
Indonesian : Belajar suatu bahasa tidaklah mudah,
English : To learning a language is generally not easy,
Indonesian : banyak orang yang mempunyai kesibukan lain selain belajar bahasa inggris,
English : Most people have other things to do in their life, other part of learning English.
Indonesian : Anda harus mengerti akan hal ini dan bersabar dalam proses belajar Anda.
English : you need to realize this and be patient regard to your progress.
Indonesian : Namun, tidak banyak yang akan anda capai bila anda tidak berusaha.
English : But, you won’t be achieved your goals much if you don’t put in the effort.
Indonesian : Namun, kemajuan anda banyak bergantung pada diri anda sendiri.
English : However, your progress depends a lot on you.
In this part, the interpreter has used better way to interpret what the speaker says. For instance, “be prepare to work hard” which is derived from “siap bekerja keras”, this sentence is very good to be understood by those who use this interpreter service. The interpreter do not always translate word from bahasa Indonesia like what is printed in the dictionary, but he/she fit the target-language with the source-language through contextual lexicon which has the nearest menaing. It is illustrated in the next sentences “you need to realize this and be patient regard to your progress”. This sentence is more understandable either for the native it the Indonesian who tend to learn the way to do interpreting. However, there is a mistake in grammar in the next sentence, it has to be “but, you won’t achieve your goal much, if you don’t put in the effort” instead of “but, you won’t be achieved your goal much, …”. Actually, it is not a big deal as long as it is understandable, however, an interpreter has to consider grammar as the other important thing beside meaning. Grammar roled to decorate the sentence which has been translated.
- Part 3
Indonesian : Tiga, luangkan waktu.
English : Third, make a time.
Indonesian : Banyak diantara kita mempunyai kehidupan yang sibuk.
English : Many of us be a busy lives.
Indonesian : Biasanya tidak mudah untuk memasukkan hal-hal baru kedalam rutinitas kita sehari-hari.
English : and it is hard to fit new things into established routine.
Indonesian : Belajar bahasa inggris membutuhkan disiplin
English : Learning English can be requires discipline.
In the part three, the interpreter has done good interpretation, however, she has little mistake in grammar, especially in the third sentence. It has to be read “learning English requires discipline” instead of learning English can be requires discipline. The other thing that the interpreter has to bare in mind is not only how he/she can interpret quickly, but also how he/she can produce grammatical accuracy in the target language. Beside that, an interpreter has to have good lexical density, it means that he/she should have many vocabularies. It is expected that those who are interpreters are able to do their job as well as possible.
- Part 4
Indonesian : anda membutuhkan waktu untuk belajar dan benar-benar belajar pada saat itu.
English : you need to set a side time for your learning and be prepare to study during that time.
Indonesian : tidak masalah bila anda mengalihkannya dengan alasan anda terlalu lelah sekali tetapi jangan menjadikan itu sebuah kebiasaan.
English : put things because you are too tired, it’s ok. But, every now and then it shouldn’t become a habit.
Indonesian : Jadikan bahasa inggris bagian yang tak terpisahkan dari rutinitas anda.
English : make english as inseparable part of your schedule.
In this part, the interpreter has produce better translation. It is proved for the first and the second sentence. The interpreter make these sentences sound communicative, so the listener understand it easily. The indonesian form “tidak masalah bila anda mengalihkannya dengan alasan anda terlalu lelah sekali tetapi jangan menjadikan itu sebuah kebiasaan” then translate as “put things because you are too tired, it’s ok. But, every now and then it shouldn’t become a habit” prove that it is made communicatively. It should be “it doesn’t matter, if…” or “it’s not a big deal, if…”. However, the interpreter uses more effective and efficient words, it is such a great way.
- Part 5
Indonesian : Empat, bertanya.
English : Fourth, aks questions.
Indonesian : Jangan takut untuk bertanya.
English : Don’t be afraid to ask questions.
Indonesian : Lima, menonton film berbahasa Inggris.
English : Fifth, watch English movies.
Indonesian : Ini cara terbaik belajar bahasa pergaulan dan melatih kemampuan pendengaran.
English : it’s a great way to become English and practice listening.
Indonesian : anda tidak harus mengerti arti setiap kata yang dikatakan
English : you don’t need to understand the meaning of every word to understand what the speaker says.
From this part, the writer finds different way to interpret “bahasa pergaulan” as “…to become English”, but it is still understandable. From the first to third sentence, she uses word-for-word. It is because these sentences are in the simple form, and it is easy to translate it word for word. However, in the next sentences, it is need more advance technique/procedure, and the interpreter is a good one.
Finally, the writer concludes that both interpreter and the speaker shared the same idea, although, the interpreter for some chances uses unpredictable lexicons that are far from writer expectation. However, both of the lexicons in the source-language and the target-language shared the similarity and they are easy to be understood. Furthermore, the interpreting process from the beginning until the end flows enjoyably, beacuse between the speaker and interpreter have the same perception and good memory. According to Nababan (2008) who states that interpretation activity requires very good ability in in information processing fast and accurately in very limited time. Perception, memory, intake power, and his/her reaction must be good. Furthermore, she/he must be able to identify literal meaning in mimics, hand gestures and body languages of the speaker. It is what and interpreter should have.
Nababan, M. Rudolf. 2008. Teori Menerjemah Bahasa Inggris. Yogyakarta : Pustaka Pelajar.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Interpreting, accessed on August, 2nd 2013
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tranlation, accessed on August, 2nd 2013
http://www.ccsenet.org/journal/index.php/elt/article/download/2370/2234, accessed on August, 2nd 2013
This paper was submitted as one of requirements to accomplish Interpreting lecture on Mr. Baharuddin’s class.